Rosetta: Rendezvous with Comet 67P/Churyumov-Gerasimenko (“67P / CG”)

Introduction
On Wednesday 6th of August 2014 and after a mammoth 10-year journey across the Solar System, the European Space Agency space probe Rosetta will rendezvous with a comet called “67P / Churyumov-Gerasimenko” (67P/CG) – a tiny icy worldlet just 4-5 kilometre long orbiting the Sun in an elliptical orbit and currently several hundred million kilometres distance from Earth.

By Wednesday 6th August, Rosetta will have settled into a 25-kilometer orbit around 67P/CG. In November 2014, a small automated Lander called Philae attached to Rosetta will be sent down to the surface. Both spacecraft will continue to travel with the comet for the next 16 months as it circles and approached the Sun (closest approach on August 13th 2015); scrutinizing its composition and behaviour as the Sun’s heat transforms the tiny frozen world into a hive of volatile activity that temporarily swells it into a gaseous entity many millions of kilometres in size.

By analysing the comet with a suite of 22 instruments, Rosetta and Philae will conduct a comprehensive analysis of the material makeup of the comet that will provide important new information regarding the origin of Earth, Earth’s oceans and life itself.

Overview and Objectives of the Rosetta Mission
Rosetta is a European Space Agency (ESA) mission to orbit and land on comet 67P /Churyumov-Gerasimenko (“67P/CG”) as it circles the Sun. The primary mission lasts from August 6th 2014 to December 31st 2015.

It is a mission made up of a main Rosetta space probe orbiter and a smaller lander attached to Rosetta named Philae. Rosetta will settle into orbit on August 6th 2014 and continue to orbit the comet over the next 16 months. In November 2014 Philae will land on the comet’s surface. Both will travel with the comet as it orbits the Sun and reaches closest approach to the Sun on August 13th 2015.

Comets are made up of icy volatile materials like water and carbon dioxide, as well as dust and other materials. So as 67P/CG approaches its closest point to the Sun in its orbit (called perihelion), its volatile materials will heat up and sublimate, forming a vast spherical gaseous coma and perhaps a tail, both of which will be more rarefied than the air we breathe and reach for millions of kilometres into space. Since 67P/CG does not approach the Sun too closely (as some other comets do), it is not likely to become as chaotic a ‘volatile cauldron’ as those which travel much closer to the Sun.

While Philae will measure the composition of, and activity on the comet directly from the surface; Rosetta, orbiting at a distance of just 25km, will also measure the volatile materials emanating from the comet into its immediate space vicinity, and indeed will be able to see how the comet changes and reacts to the Sun’s heat and solar wind as they move closer to the Sun in August 2015.

The data gleaned from the comet will reveal its internal makeup and composition, including any organic materials present, to the atomic and molecular levels; providing significant new insight into the origin of the Solar System, the origin of Earth and its oceans and the origin of life.

Journey to Comet 67P/Churyumov-Gerasimenko
Because no current rocket (including the powerful ESA Arianne-5 rocket upon which Rosetta was launched) has the capability to send such a large 3-Tonne spacecraft directly to a comet such as 67P/Churyumov-Gerasimenko, Rosetta was ‘bounced around the inner Solar System like a cosmic billiard ball’, during its ten-year trek to Comet 67P/Churyumov-Gerasimenko.

Since its launch in 2004 from Kourou in French Guiana, Rosetta has criss-crossed the inner Solar System four times, has travelled over 6 billion kilometres, including availing of three gravity-assist flybys of Earth (2005, 2007 and 2009) and one of Mars (2007); and is finally due to arrive at comet 67P/CG – just 4 to 5 kilometres in length – at a distance of several hundred million kilometres from Earth.

Hibernation and Wakeup
Rosetta’s 10 year deep-space odyssey comprised lengthy periods of inactivity, punctuated by relatively short spells of intense activity when encountering Earth, Mars, and several asteroids. Ensuring that the spacecraft survived the hazards of travelling through deep space for more than ten years has been one of the major challenges of the Rosetta mission, and has been hugely successful to date.

To that end, Rosetta was placed in hibernation between June 8th 2011 and January 20th 2014 in order to limit consumption of power and fuel. During that lengthy hibernation, the spacecraft rotated once each minute while facing the Sun for solar power; with the only electrical systems kept running being the radio receivers and command decoders. On January 20th 2014, a “wake-up” command was sent to Rosetta. ESA scientists were hugely relieved that the dormant spacecraft received the command and awoke from its hibernation in excellent health and ready to take on all challenges ahead of it.

August 2014 Rendezvous with Comet 67P/Churyumov-Gerasimenko
Since its reawakening in January, Rosetta has been steadily approaching the comet. For the past 90 days or so, it has been moving at only about 2 metres per second with respect to the comet. As you read this, the space probe is imaging the comet, allowing ESA scientists and engineers to determine the comet’s size, shape and orientation and rotation; allowing for Rosetta to complete its orbital insertion, which takes place on Wednesday August 6th 2014.

Using its approximately 1.7 Tonnes of propellant, the space probe’s propellant system and 24 thrusters recently manoeuvred the probe into an orbit just ahead of the comet, with the final orbit about the comet to be established on August 6th.

Rosetta will then start its science program, using eleven different instruments to photograph and map the comet to great precision, determine its internal structure and monitor any gas and dust emanating from the surface.

November Landing on Comet 67P/Churyumov-Gerasimenko
Once the comet has been mapped, five potential landing sites will be identified. Once ESA scientists have determined the best one, they will plan for a November landing. At that time Rosetta will move to within 1 kilometre of the comet, and release the lander Philae, which will set gently down on the comet at walking pace.

Once secure on the surface, it will anchor itself to the comet (because the comet’s gravity is too small to securely hold the lander on the surface) and proceed to conduct a series of sophisticated experiments, including drilling into the comet’s surface and placing surface materials into the body of the lander where their makeup can be determined to atomic and molecular levels.

Journey towards and away from the Sun
Comet 67P/CG is known as a Jupiter-class comet, meaning that its orbit is affected by the strong gravity of the giant planet Jupiter. Indeed Jupiter changed the orbit of 67P/CG in 1959, so that now the comet travels on an elliptical orbit that brings it to within 185 million kilometres of the Sun at closest approach (perihelion) and out to over 850 million kilometres at its furthest (aphelion).

Over the next 16 months and during the next perihelion on August 13th 2015, both Rosetta and Philae will monitor, image and measure all that happens on and around the comet as it draws nearer to the Sun. As already indicated, because 67P/CG will not travel too close to the Sun, so it is not expected to become as chaotic as comets which venture much closer to the Sun. Nevertheless, there will be plenty of activity, and as of June 2014, Rosetta has already begun to see small quantities of water emanating from the comet, and such activity will but increase greatly over the next year or so, providing both probes with an unprecedented opportunity to examine the makeup, composition and interaction of the comet as it orbits about the Sun.

Rosetta and Philae: Science Objectives and Instruments
Rosetta and Philae are charges with carrying out the following tasks:
• Detailed imaging and mapping of the comet
• Determination of the internal structure of the comet
• Determination of the material makeup, including elemental, isotopic and molecular details, of the comet’s volatile materials, dust and other materials and any organic materials expected to be present in the comet
• Image, monitor and measure the release of all materials, volatile or otherwise, from the comet as it reaches its closest point to the Sun in August 2015; and observe how these materials interact with the Sun’s solar wind and magnetic field

So how will Rosetta and Philae do all of that? The Rosetta orbiter contains no less than 11 scientific instruments including cameras for imaging the comet, a thermal camera to determine its material makeup, a type of radar know as radio-sounding that can penetrate the comet and determine its interior makeup, a mass-spectrometer and dust analyser to analyse materials emanating from the comet and plasma and magnetic field analysers for monitoring the interaction of the comet’s materials with the Sun’s solar wind and magnetic field.

Philae’s science package of 10 instruments is arguably more sophisticated; and includes an Alpha Proton X-Ray Spectrometer (as on the Mars Rovers) to determine the elemental makeup of the surface, a drill to drill into the surface and place samples into its body where a suite of instruments will determine the molecular makeup of the materials, including organic materials, and even determine the isotopic nature of the elements (critical for determining whether comets were the primeval source of all of Earth’s water). Radio-sounding and acoustic instruments will measure the internal structure of the comet, while high resolution cameras will image its surface.

Both the orbiter and the lander will conduct a suite of hard-science experiments typical of modern analytical laboratories. The instruments on board both Rosetta and Philae are more sophisticated than those on the Mars Exploration Rovers Spirit and Opportunity, and on a par with most of the instruments on the Mars Science Laboratory Curiosity; constituting one of the most sophisticated space science missions ever conducted.

Comets and Origins
Comets are tiny icy worlds usually only single kilometres in diameter. They are remnants of formation of the Solar System 4.6 billion years ago. As the Sun formed, countless trillions of tonnes of volatile materials such as water, carbon dioxide, ammonia and methane, as well as organic materials to the complexity of nucleic acids and amino acids that make up DNA ad proteins in life as we know it, were synthesized in the proto-planetary disk surrounding the Sun.

As the planets like Earth and Mars formed, the lighter elements and synthesized volatile materials moved further out from the Sun, contributing to the formation of the gas giant planets Jupiter, Saturn, Uranus and Neptune; but with the left over volatiles forming a vast swarm of perhaps a trillion comets, most of which reside in the Oort Cloud far out in the Solar System between 0.1 and 1 Light Year distance (one-hundred-billion to one-thousand-billion kilometres out – by comparison Pluto resides at approximately six-billion kilometres from the Sun.)

What is so crucial about comets is that they retain a record of the actual synthesis of both volatile materials such as water and carbon dioxide, and of organic molecules to the complexity of genetic nucleotides and amino acids known to be important to life as we know it, in the region of the Sun before the Earth itself had formed.

Hence “67P CG” represents one of a vast family of objects that are potentially older than the Earth, retaining a pristine record of complex chemistry occurring about the Sun relevant to the formation of life on Earth before and when the Earth was taking form. For this reason, comets are seen as very important in our search for the origin of the Solar System, of Earth and its oceans and of life itself.

Rosetta Mission – Relevance and Value to Science & Society
Given that we still have very little idea as to how life originated, studying such primeval evidence as retained in comets constitutes one of the most important endeavours in science. The Rosetta mission is arguably as important as the Mars exploration programme in search of evidence of origins on Mars, and perhaps The Hubble Space Telescope and the CERN Large Hadron Collider, both of which are currently revolutionising our understanding of the nature, origin and fate of the Universe itself.

Among the questions regarding the origin of life we must answer are:
• What is the origin of Earth oceans? In particular, is the water making up our oceans indigenous to our planet, or did it arrive from a mass bombardment of comets, asteroids and meteorites known to have occurred billions of years ago?
• Where did the basic organic materials for life originate – from organic synthesis on our planet, or from organic materials within comets and meteorites manufactured in the vicinity of the Sun before and during Earth formation?

The Rosetta mission may go some way toward answering both of these fundamental questions, among others.

And so we can see why this mission is named Rosetta. As with the Rosetta stone which allowed modern society to decipher the hieroglyphics of ancient Egypt – the Rosetta mission to 67P/CG may provide the cipher to enable us to better read the cosmic book of life – to see better the connection between the origin of life on Earth and its connection to the origin of the Solar System; and to link the origin of life on Earth to a deeper insight into the cosmic abundance of life.

This opportunity has been afforded to us through the technological and scientific endeavour of our ancestors and current generation of scientists alike, and we have taken that opportunity. To not do so would be a dereliction of duty to ourselves, to society, to our place in the great unfolding human story and to future generations who will need the insights we glean from this mission to make new and ever more enlightened decisions and undertake new endeavours to better understand who we are, where we have come from and what our cosmic fate can be.

I recommend that you follow the Rosetta mission over the next 16 months or so via the following links. In the Documents section of this blog (see Menu at top of Blog) you will also find a downloadable PDF document titled “TPS_ESA_Rosetta” containing this blog in a more bullet-point format, as well as containing greater detail on both the Rosetta Orbiter and Philae Lander and their science instruments, as well as a set of images including source URSs to hi-res versions, and required credits should you use any of the images.

Web (ESA):

http://www.esa.int/Our_Activities/Space_Science/Rosetta

Rosetta on Twitter:
@ESA_Rosetta

Rosetta on Facebook:

https://www.facebook.com/RosettaMission

Rosetta Blog:

http://blogs.esa.int/rosetta/

Rosetta on Youtube:

Images:

1. Rosetta Space-probe and Philae Comet Lander:

Rosetta_and_Philae_at_comet_node_full_image_2

Caption: In November 12014, Rosetta (upper) will set the Philae lander (lower) onto the surface of comet 67P / Churyumov-Gerasimenko as it closely approaches and then circles the Sun

Hi-Res Source: http://www.esa.int/spaceinimages/Images/2013/12/Rosetta_and_Philae_at_comet6

Credit: ESA–J. Huart

2. Illustration of the size of comet 67P/ Churyumov-Gerasimenko

How_big_is_Rosetta_s_comet_node_full_image_2
Caption: Illustration showing the relative size of comet 67P / Churyumov-Gerasimenko to well known features on Earth. Though huge on a human scale, comet “67P” is a small celestial body and possesses only a very weak gravity.

Hi Res Source: http://www.esa.int/spaceinimages/Images/2014/07/How_big_is_Rosetta_s_comet

Credit: ESA

3. Comet images on August 1st 2014 67P / Churyumov-Gerasimenko

Comet_from_1000_km_node_full_image_2

Caption: On 1st of August, Rosetta took this image of comet 67P / Churyumov-Gerasimenko, revealing it to be a double lobed, peanut shaped object.

Hi-Res Source:

Credit: ESA

The Summer Solstice 2014 and The Summer Night Sky

It’s been some time since I’ve blogged! I had hoped to blog a tad more regularly, but it’s becoming clear to me that it’ll take longer to get up to speed with regular blogging (with worthwhile content!).

So I’m still in a phase of extensive research and literature surveying for intended blogs on the future of Mars exploration, the changing landscape of space exploration and related sociological issue. When all of that is complete it will hopefully lead to some insightful blogs as there are many changes taking place right now in how space exploration is being planned and pursued, and on how people in general perceive it – and with MANY outstanding and issues too. Watch this space!

In the mean time, what a perfect opportunity to write a little about the summer solstice and the summer night sky from Ireland. As you may have heard on the RTE Radio 1 Marian Finucane Show on Sunday 22nd June, we chatted about the summer solstice, so I thought I’d post some details on the solstice from an astronomical point of view, and talk a little about what constellations are in the night sky over Ireland. A little rushed, but here goes:

Key Points:

Solstice:
– Moment / time each year when Sun reaches highest point in the sky
– When (2014): 11.51am on June 21st
– Height above the horizon from Ireland (Altitude): 60.5 degrees above the horizon
– For all points on Earth, including Ireland, the Sun reaches a different height in the sky for each and every day. In mid winter it reaches only about 13.5 degrees above the horizon (called the winter solstice), shortening our days; while in mid summer it reaches an altitude of 60.5 degrees (summer solstice), lengthening our days. Mid point between those extremes – at the spring equinox (March) and autumnal equinox (September) the Sun reaches an interim height (about 37 degrees) and we get approximately equal length days and nights
– Cause: Earth’s axis is tilted by 23.5 degrees, it is spinning and it is orbiting the Sun. So in summer Earth is tilted toward the Sun and we see it higher in the sky, in winter we’re tilted away from the Sun and we see it lower in the sky, and for every other day of the year the Sun reaches a height at noon between those extremes.
– To help visualize this, concentrate first on the extremes. So in summer we’re tilted 23.5 degrees towards the Sun meaning that when it rises into the sky it reaches a great height. Conversely in December we’re tilted 23.5 degrees away from the Sun so we see it correspondingly lower in the sky. On the equinoxes we’re neither tilted away nor toward the Sun so it reaches an interim height – and we get 12 hours day and night. Of course the Earth is always tilted at 23.5 degrees – that doesn’t change through the year; what we’re interested in here is the orientation of that tilt with respect to the Sun, and at the equinoxes the Earth is tilted at 23.5 degrees for sure, only neither towards nor away from the Sun.
– Each place on the Earth experiences the same affect but to differing amounts depending on its latitude on the globe; so every location in the northern hemisphere sees the Sun at its highest point in their sky on June 21st.
– To work out the maximum angle of the Sun above the horizon on the summer solstice at your latitude:
(90 degrees – your Latitude) + 23.5 degrees (that equals 60.5 degrees for Ireland)
– To work out the maximum angle of the Sun above the horizon at your latitude during the winter solstice:
(90 degrees – your Latitude) – 23.5 degrees (approximately 13.5 degrees for Ireland)

Explanation:
– The Earth orbits the Sun once a year and so the Sun appears to traverse the sky once a year (from west to east)
– We don’t see the Sun actually move from west to east throughout the year, rather we see it at about the same position at the same time each day, with the background stars (from our line of sight) changing accordingly throughout the year. To visualize this, imagine asking a friend to stand still while you walk around them keeping your eyes firmly fixed on them at all times. As you circle your friend they will stay in the centre of your field of view. However, what you see behind them will continuously change as you circle them. It’s like this for the Earth circling the Sun. We see the Sun at approximately the same place in the sky at the same time each day, but the stars or constellations behind the Sun change as the year passes by.
– So as Earth orbits Sun it appears to move in relation to the background stars. Ancient civilisations organised groups of stars in the sky into patterns called constellations; and the Sun passes through one constellation per month. Hence the 12 constellations it passes through are called the constellations of the zodiac, and are named: Pisces, Aries, Taurus, Gemini, Cancer, Leo, Virgo, Libra, Scorpio, Sagittarius, Capricorn and Aquarius. The path around the sky through the zodiac that the Sun appears to travel is called the ecliptic.
– But the tilt of the Earth has a significant effect on the Sun’s apparent yearly motion about the sky in a vertical sense (as in: higher in summer and lower in winter), and is the cause of us having longer days in summer and shorter days in winter.
– Because the Earths axis is tilted by 23.5 degrees the Sun moves around the sky once a year on a path that is tilted at an angle of 23.5 degrees to the celestial equator (the extension of the Earth’s equator into the sky that divides the sky into north and south). So the Sun’s yearly path is a great circle in the sky (called the ecliptic) that intersects the celestial equator at an angle of 23.5 degrees and so the Sun appears to travel from south to north and back again in a cyclical manner over its yearly path. The Sun is below the celestial equator for 6 months and so appears in southern part of the sky, and is above the equator for 6 months and appears in the northern sky. It is this south-to-north (and back again) apparent movement of the Sun in the sky over the course of a year that gives us longer and shorter days; where (for us in the north) the Sun reaches its furthest point north in the sky in summer, appearing higher in the sky and giving us longer days, while it reaches its furthers point south in winter and hence appears lower in the sky, giving us shorter day.
– The point when it traverses south to north – where the ecliptic intersects the celestial equator – is called spring equinox and gives us 12 hours of day and night (approximately). This is also called the First Point of Aries because when ancient civilisations discovered this phenomenon, the Sun appeared in the constellation of Aries as it travelled from south to north.
– Also, at the time of such celestial discovery about 2000 years ago, in mid-summer the Sun resided in the constellation of Cancer and also directly over head at a latitude of 23.5 degrees north of Earth’s equator. This is why that latitude is called the Tropic of Cancer. Similarly at mid winter in the north (mid summer in the south) the Sun resided in the constellation of Capricorn and also appeared directly overhead at a latitude of 23.5 degrees south of Earth’s equator and why that latitude is called the Tropic of Capricorn. Precession of the Earth’s axis over a 26,000 year period means that although Earth’s tilt remains about about 23 degrees, it’s orientation changes (think of a spinning top rapidly rotating at a tilt but the orientation of the tilt changing over time). As a result of this precession the constellation the Sun appears in at the equinoxes and solstices changes over time (by about 1 degree in the sky every 72 years) so that today the Sun no longer appears in Aries at the spring equinox but instead now appears in the constellation of Pisces; and similarly no longer appears in Cancer at the summer solstice and instead has moved into the constellation of Gemini at that time of the year.

Finally, Earth’s precession also means that, were it not for regular corrections we make to our calendar, mid-summer in the northern hemisphere would occur in December in about 13,000 years from now. To ensure we retain our existing calendar with mid-summer always in June, we add fractions of a second to our clocks every few years, nudging the calendar back into place to counteract the Earth’s precession.

The Summer Constellations

Of course, while we can’t directly see which constellation the Sun is in at any given moment (because that constellation is behind the Sun in the day time), as the Sun moves from constellation to constellation, it correspondingly affects which constellations we see at the night. In particular, those constellations on the far side of the sky to the Sun at any given moment will appear in the middle of the night.

This is why we see different constellations in the night sky during different times of the year. For example, the constellations of Taurus is visible in the southern sky in winter, but during the summer it is not visible at night because the Sun is actually in the constellation of Taurus so it is in the sky during the day.

So this gives us a lovely opportunity to ask what constellations are in the summer sky around the time of the summer solstice and though July? Though of course the skies are less dark than in winter (because the days are longer and the Sun does not set so far below the horizon at our latitude), the summer night sky from Ireland is nothing less than spectacular.

Firstly, traversing the sky from northeast towards southwest you see the faint white band of the Milky Way galaxy itself, of which we are a part. The Milky Way is a galaxy of perhaps 200 billion stars, each like our Sun, and the band of light is the combined starlight of all 200 billion of those stars.

The main feature of our summer skies is called the “Summer Triangle” made up of the three brightest stars you can see as you look overhead and south: the brilliant blue-white star Vega (in the constellation Lyra) almost directly over head at midnight through July, Deneb the strong white star in the magnificent constellation of Cygnus the Swan (also known as the Northern Cross) and the white-yellow star Altair furthest south in the constellation of Aquila. Altair is of particular note because, at just 16 light years distance, it is one of our closest cosmic neighbours (and is the star to which the gallant crew travelled in the iconic 1950’s film “Forbidden Planet”).

The constellation of Cygnus the Swan is also of particular interest. To find it, look for a large cross or crucifix outline of seven stars almost directly over head during July, of which the brightest star is Deneb. Cygnus lies within the rich star fields of the Milky Way, and viewing this constellation through binoculars is nothing short of spectacular, where you will witness countless thousands of stars to rival any Star Wars movie scene.

The Kepler exoplanet finder space probe, which has discovered about 2000 planets around other stars, concentrated its efforts exclusively within Cygnus, so it is surely intriguing to know, as you look through your binoculars at the stars within the constellation, that many of them possess families of planets.

Finally in the summer night sky we cannot ignore the giant ‘W’ of the sky: Cassiopeia. Though Cassiopeia is visible in the sky all year round from Ireland, it is particularly splendid in summer in the northeast region of the sky. Identifying it for the first time is hugely satisfying, and again observing it through binoculars is nothing short of spectacular. A particular treat through binoculars is the magnificent double star cluster in the constellation of Perseus, the next door constellation to Cassiopeia. and you can find the double cluster easily using Cassiopeia as a guide – from the left most star of Cassiopeia find the 2nd and 3rd stars of the great ‘W’ – then extend their line downwards for about twice their separation and you arrive at the fabulous double cluster in Perseus. Each of the clusters comprises more than 300 blue-white giant stars and are perhaps only 12 to 13 million years old – a blink of the eye in cosmological terms and when compared to our Sun’s 4,500 million year age!

I urge each and every one of you to come to know the motion of the Sun, Moon, Planets and stars in our sky. Read about it, learn how people of old figured out such motions. Convince yourself of Earth’s movement about the Sun and how it affects the seasons, length of day, how high the sun can reach in the sky and what constellations you can see at each time of the year. There is no doubt that gaining such insight delivers a great sense of connection and ‘place’ in the greater natural scheme.

Likewise, I strongly advise you to come to know the night sky at various times of the year. There is nothing more enthralling than identifying the constellations for yourself. The first time you see a constellation pattern in the sky is a very exciting moment; and without trying to be over the top about it, a quite personal moment. For me, that moment occurred when I was about 10 or 11. I had read about the constellation of Orion from a beautiful little book called the “Observers Book of Astronomy” my Patrick Moore, and set out on winter evenings to see it for myself. I spent no less than three winters looking for it, but to no avail. I just could not find it. For the first couple of winters I looked and looked. What kept drawing my attention, however, was three stars in a straight line that would appear in the autumn sky to the southeast , and fade in spring to the southwest. I found those stars fascinating, but for love nor money I could not find Orion. I read about it more and more, but nothing could reveal it to me.

And then, on the third winter, while looking at those intriguing three star, Orion presented itself to me in a moment of pure revelation. I looked at the three stars and realised in a moment of joy and exhilaration that they were actually at the centre of Orion! There was Orion, magnificent – HUGE – surrounding those three stars (the belt of Orion!) in the sky, dominating a much, much larger part of the southern sky than I had expected – in front of me all the time. My mistake over the previous years had been a lacking of perception of the size of the constellations in the sky. I had thought they were tiny, and that I would have to track them down with fine precision within a small part the sky! Nothing could have prepared me for the sheer size and scale of the the constellations in the sky and how readily visible they are to the unaided eye; and so I could not see Orion even on the most glorious of dark, crisp nights. I will never forget that night and that moment of personal discovery; and I urge each and every one of you to similarly explore the sky – most especially with your naked eye and at most with a pair of binoculars – but first and foremost with your eyes only (and a good night sky guide), to discover the constellations for yourself.

And be sure to look into the summer night sky on some calm cloudless evening – either with the naked eye to discover the constellations for yourself or with a pair of binoculars to witness the splendor of the heavens just beyond the perception of the naked eye. Find out a little of the mythology of each constellation you identify, learn what stars, nebulae and star clusters are in it, read a little of the astrophysics that describes the processes underlying the formation, evolution and fate of the stars and indeed the Milky Way itself. Finally, perhaps explore the magnificent and unique Hubble Space Telescope image archive on-line to witness visual details not visible from the ground and indeed to learn more about the powerful cosmological processes that drive the workings of the Universe itself. Make such a quest your own. From looking into the night sky to learning about the underlying cosmological forces at play, there is much you can do to enhance your sense and understanding of nature on the grandest scheme. You do not need to be a scientist or astronomer to do this, and each and every one of us has an entitlement to such a sense of connection and ownership of the universe within which we live.

Happy observing and learning!

TPS Ireland talks about Mars in Feb. and March (2014)

I’m delighted to say that I’ve been invited to give two talks through February and March as TPS Ireland representative, which anyone can attend. I’ll deliver the same talk on both occasions. It’s titled “Exploring Mars, Discovering Earth” which was the theme for The United Nations Space Week 2013, run in October 2013; and for which Mars geomorphologist Professor Mary Bourke at Trinity College Dublin ran a fabulous week of public events related to Mars.

The talk in Feb. and March will be an updated version of the talk I gave last October. So while I’ll talk about the basis for Mars exploration and discuss the latest missions and mission findings, I’ll also mention some arising issues such as newly announced robotic missions to Mars by both ESA and NASA; and if time permits, offer some context on recently proposed human missions to Mars such as “Inspiration Mars” and “Mars One”, looking at their merits and concerns.

I plan to write blogs on all of those issues in the coming months, and am as we speak drafting a blog on the basis of, and reasoning behind, current robotic Mars exploration. I hope to post that blog by mid February.

In the mean time, if you feel inclined, please do attend one of the upcoming talks. They are aimed at the general public, are rich in astounding Mars images (some in 3D) and video animations, and will also present the very latest findings from the MER Opportunity and MSL Curiosity rovers. The details are as follows:

Talk 1: Presented by Kevin Nolan of The Planetary Society to The Irish Skeptics Society, on Wednesday 26th February, at 8pm in the Davenport Hotel, Merrion Square. All are welcome.

Talk 2: Presented by Kevin Nolan of The Planetary Society to The Irish Astronomical Society, on Monday 31st March, at 8pm in Ely House, 8 Ely Place, Dublin 2. All welcome, free event.

Mars Exploration Rover Opportunity 10th Anniversary – 25th January

On January 25th 2014 the Mars Exploration Rover “Opportunity” celebrates ten years operations on the surface of Mars. This blog provides a little insight into that remarkable ten year (and continuing) mission. If you click on the Documents section you can find a PDF document I’ve put together for download providing an overview of Mars Exploration and the Opportunity mission. In future blogs I’ll provide some insight into the reasoning for Mars exploration and the current program for Mars exploration being pursued by NASA and ESA in particular. For now, it is surely appropriate to reflect on the remarkable MER Opportunity rover.

The Mars Exploration Rovers (MER) Spirit and Opportunity both landed on Mars in January 2004. Their mission was straight forward – to investigate whether their respective landing locations once retained large bodies of standing water on Mars billions of years ago. Verification of past surface water would strengthen the case for Mar being similar to Earth in its early history, and perhaps of life-related activity occurring on the planet. Since Mars still retains a planet-wide record of its early planetary activity, any such discovery would present an unprecedented opportunity for humanity to further explore and examine conditions similar to those that gave rise to life on Earth (conditions long since gone from our world).

While within just months of landing on the surface Spirit had verified that the 100km wide crater it landed in was indeed a vast lake in its early history, Opportunity’s landing was nothing short of remarkable. It scored a ‘cosmic hole in one’ by inadvertently landing within a tiny 22m wide crater upon a vast flat plain called Meridiani Planum, suspected to have been a sea on Mars billions of years ago. Nothing could have prepared scientists for what they were about to witness, starting from the first images sent back to Earth by Opportunity: images of the exposed walls of the tiny shallow crater revealing water-based sedimentary layered structure and even salt deposits on the surface of the crater; immediately and unequivocally verifying that Meridiani Planum had indeed been a sea on Mars billions of years ago.

Although MER Spirit and Opportunity were chartered to carry out a 90-day primary mission (with extensions expected), nobody had expected that, 10 year later and 40 kilometres down range, MER Opportunity would still be operational. Not only has Opportunity survived four sub -100oC Martian winters, but it also managed to survive a 3-year, 20-km trek across the vast sandy plains of Mars to reach a huge 22km-wide crater called Endeavour, which it arrived at in September 2011. To add poignancy to Opportunity’s mission, NASA revealed to the World in September 2011 (in honour of the tenth anniversary of the 9-11 Twin Towers attacks) that a small piece of aluminium making up the robotic arm of Opportunity originated from the shattered aluminium body of one of the World Trade Centre Twin Towers.

Today, Opportunity is still going strong. It has been reprogrammed from Earth to be an autonomous artificial–intelligent “thinking machine” capable of planning excursion and scientific investigations on its own and without instruction from Earth. Although showing signs of wear and tear, it celebrates 10 years of roving across the surface of Mars on January 25th 2014, after which it will embark on among its most important scientific investigation – a several kilometre excursion south along the rim of Endeavour crater to a site found from orbit to retain clay materials – materials that formed billions of years ago in a non-acidic water environment, and materials which on Earth are seen as potentially important to the origin of life here. The years ahead for Opportunity may turn out to be its most productive of all; contributing to one of the most extraordinary feats of exploration every undertaken by humanity.

For the rest of this blog, lets take a look at some overview facts, and some images, related to Mars exploration; and to the achievements of Opportunity:

Mars Exploration:

o Mars is a rocky planet half the diameter of the Earth and although dormant today, it retained oceans, seas, lakes, rivers and an atmosphere in its early history

o Since Mars retains a planet wide record of that early activity similar to Earth, it offers a significant opportunity to explore the origin of life itself, and to determine if life arose there.

o NASA and ESA have therefore been engaged in a hugely successful 5-phased, multi-decadal robotic program of Mars exploration since 1997, and continuing today…

Some Mars Exploration Highlights:

o Mars Global Surveyor Orbiter (1997 – 2005): Verified ancient water systems from orbit

o Mars Odyssey Orbiter (2001 – Present): Finds vast reservoirs of water-ice on Mars today

o Mars Exploration Rovers Spirit and Opportunity (2004 – Present): Unequivocal verification of ancient seas and lakes on Mars. Opportunity has driven 40km across Mars to the present day

o Mars Phoenix Lander (2008): Direct contact with water-ice just centimetres below the surface

o Mars Science Laboratory (2012 – Present): Verified that its landing site, Gale Crater, was habitable in Mars’ past

Opportunity’s – Ten Year Journey across Mars

Among the most extraordinary and exhilarating aspects of Opportunity’s mission is the journey it has embarked on over the past ten years, and continuing to this day:

• January 25th 2004: Eagle Crater: Opportunity arrived on Mars on Meridiani Planum – a dried ancient sea bed near Mars’ equator. It landed in a small crater called Eagle Crater, approximately 22m across and showing both water-based sedimentary layering and precipitated sea salt on the surface all around the rover. An extraordinary happenstance.
• April 20th 2004: Endurance Crater: After about 80 days, on April 20th 2004, Opportunity arrived at a football-stadium sized crater called Endurance Crater, at about 800m distance from its landing site. There, it discovered sedimentary rocks created by water deposition, and verified that the region had been inundated by water from two different seas at two different eras in Mars’ ancient past.
• January 2005 – September 2006: Opportunity travels over 7km to a 700m wide crater called Victoria Crater. On route it becomes lodged in a tiny sand-dune (subsequently called “Purgatory Dune” and requiring NASA to spend 6 weeks to dislodge the rover). On route to Victoria crater Opportunity finds further extensive evidence that entire regions was once a sea. As the rover arrived at Victoria crater it was photographed from Mars orbit by the newly arrived Mars Reconnaissance Orbiter which can image objects from orbit as small as 30cm on the surface.
• August 2008 – September 2011: Journey to Endeavour Crater. The decision was taken in August 2008 to send Opportunity on an epic 20km trek to a 22km wide crater called Endeavour Crater. For 3 years the rover drove relentlessly across the Martian landscape and arrived at Endeavour Crater in August 2011. This is now regarded as among the most epic voyages of exploration every engaged by humanity. On route the rover photographed a meteorite that was then given the name “Oileán Ruaidh” – named after the island off the coast of Donegal of that name and bearing a very similar shape!
• September 2011 – Present Day. Since late 2011, Opportunity has been exploring the rim of Endeavour Crater because the rim material is composed of materials from Mars’ earliest history over 4 billion years ago. It may yet make some of its most important discoveries at this location, including the examination of clay materials that only arise as a result of water that is neither acidic nor alkaline but instead is of neutral pH. Clay materials are seen as important to natural processes potentially leading to the origin of life.
• Present-day – the future: Opportunity has traveled over 40 km across the Martian surface and will continue its voyage of discovery for the foreseeable future.

Opportunity – Milestones, Discoveries & Achievements

• Launch: July 7, 2003
• Launch Vehicle: Delta II H
• Arrival: Jan. 25. 2004 UTC
• Landing Site: Meridiani Planum
• Mission Duration: Still roving!
• Odometry: 24 miles (40 km)
• Images Returned: 187,000
• Verified that Meridiani Planum was an ancient sea. Verified that at two different times in Mars’ past a sea resided there; for a minimum of several hundred thousand years (and likely millions of years) in each era.
• Unequivocal evidence (for the first time) of surface water on another world. This also suggested that Mars possessed a dense atmosphere about as dense as Earth’s atmosphere today. Although the water activity at that location was probably not conducive to life as we know it, water is seen as a crucial ingredient to the origin, inner-workings and development of life as we know it.
• Opportunity will shortly analyse surface clay materials – suggesting water from yet another era and this time much more conducive to life as we know it. Clay materials are seen as important in aiding the polymerization of organic and genetic materials.

Images (with captions, hi-res source links and credits)

1. Mars Exploration Rover:

rover3_br

Caption: Artist Impression of MER Opportunity on Mars. The Mast Stereo Camera and Robotic Arm are seen clearly.

Source:

http://marsrovers.jpl.nasa.gov/gallery/artwork/rover1browse.html

Hi-Res:

Credit: Courtesy NASA/JPL-Caltech

2. Festoon Cross Bedding: Evidence of Past Running Water on the Surface of Mars

IDL TIFF file
Caption: This image shows distinctive centimetre-sized “festoons.” They imply the presence of small, sinuous sand ripples that form in water, and are the preserved remnants of tiny underwater sand dunes formed long ago by waves in shallow water on the surface of Mars.

Source:

http://marsrovers.jpl.nasa.gov/gallery/press/opportunity/20060106a.html

Hi-Res:

Credit: Courtesy NASA/JPL-Caltech

3. Opportunity’s Journey 2004 – 2014

pia17589_Opportunity_Traverse_3486_br

Caption:
Image showing MER Opportunity’s epic journey across the Martian surface. Opportunity was not designed to travel such vast distances, but so well built is the rover that to date it has traveled almost 40km – the furthest any machine has traversed any world beyond Earth. Opportunity shows no signs of stopping, and may have several more years of operational life left.

Source:

http://marsrovers.jpl.nasa.gov/gallery/press/opportunity/20131203a.html

Hi-Res:

Credit: Courtesy NASA/JPL-Caltech

4. Opportunity Current Location
IDL TIFF file

Caption:
Opportunity’s location in January 2014: Murray Ridge is on a part of the rim of Endeavour Crater called Solander Point. Murray Ridge is named in honour of Bruce Murray, former head of the Mars Viking Mission, Director of JPL and co-founder of The Planetary Society, who passed away on August 29th 2013. This image was taken on the 3,496th Martian day (Sol) with Opportunity’s near-infra red camera. Each colour represents a different mineral; enabling scientists to decipher Mars’ ancient surface activity because different minerals form under different temperatures, pressure and humidity. Despite the remarkable statistics regarding Opportunity’s journey, it is the scientific data that Opportunity returns to Earth relentlessly that is most valuable of all, allowing us to understand Mars’ early history and favourability for life-origins related processes; a challenge still in its infancy.

Source:

http://marsrovers.jpl.nasa.gov/gallery/press/opportunity/20140103a.htmlhttp://marsrovers.jpl.nasa.gov/gallery/press/opportunity/20140103a.html

Hi-Res:

Credit: Courtesy NASA/JPL-Caltech

Hello!

Welcome to my new blog. My name is Kevin Nolan. I’m the Coordinator to Ireland for The Planetary Society and the author of the book “Mars, A Cosmic Stepping Stone” (Springer/Copernicus, NY, 2008).

This blog aims to provide current affairs, analysis and (hopefully) objective insight into aspects of space exploration and astronomy; with particular focus on Mars, Mars exploration, Life in The Universe and our ever-changing perspective of our place in the Universe. There will be healthy doses of science-and-society, space-policy and other sociological aspects to space exploration.

As a science communicator, I have a particular interest in communicating the relevance of science to those not interested in science as a subject, but who are interested in the relevance, value and impact of science on our lives, on society and upon the future.

Thanks for visiting this blog, and I look forward to regular posts (aiming for about one new post every two weeks for the time being and eventually one a week when I find my feet) on the important topics of the moment. It will be an interesting learning experience for me, and hopefully provide some worthwhile information and insight to you; and perhaps prod some interesting comments too.

…and of course – I will be providing details of ALL Planetary Society Ireland events here too!